After Sultan Al-Ashraf Qaitbay heard of Ottoman forces approaching Alexandria, he started construction on this austere stronghold on the Mediterranean Sea in 1477. The castle designs were ingeniously set up on the remains of the collapsed Pharos Lighthouse, where workmen could recover parts of the previous building for the mosque and entryway.
The Ottoman Empire eventually conquered Egypt, although the Citadel remained a military fort until the British assault of 1882. The towering and beautiful building had been abandoned on the waterfront for almost a century until the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities intervened to restore it to its former splendour.
Since the 1952 revolution, the Citadel has served as a nautical museum, chronicling Egyptian navy triumphs and losses.
1. Matsumoto Castle is located in the city of Matsumoto, Japan
Japan's Matsumoto matsumoto castle, one of Japan's most ancient castles, is nicknamed as crow castle owing to its black exterior coward lion, along with himeji castle and kumamoto castle.
Matsumoto Castle dates back to 1504, when the Ogasawara clan began construction on a fort to defend against foreign invasions. Takeda Shingen, a strong warlord, seized the military structure just a few years after it was completed. The castle's architecture developed into a towering, three-towered building with inky black walls and roofs as it changed hands throughout history, earning it the moniker "the Crow Castle."
The castle was threatened with destruction in 1872, when developers sought to construct newer structures and housing complexes on the site. Residents of Matsumoto, on the other hand, began a campaign to preserve the tower, which was ultimately purchased by the municipal government.
Today, the Matsumoto Castle has been designated as a Japanese national treasure and one of the few remaining instances of daimy's castles
2. Bojnice Castle is located in the town of Bojnice, Slovakia
This Romanesque fortress may have been constructed as a timber fort as early as 1113, according to written documents discovered at the Zobor Abbey. By the 12th century, stone had gradually replaced wood, and the castle had Gothic and Renaissance features.
While King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and Croatia may not have been the fortress's initial owner, he may have been one of the first to invest in its development. The king would often visit the tiny city to work on his decrees and dictate them beneath the linden tree that now bears his name on the grounds.
Owner after owner proceeded to restore the castle's exteriors or add chambers, until it eventually fell into the hands of Count János Ferenc Pálffy. The monarch was inspired by the beautiful Loire Valley castles and set out to build his own fantasy castle, complete with his immaculate collection of antiques, tapestries, and artwork. Bojnice Castle, with its beautiful look, has become one of the most visited castles in the world, with hundreds of thousands of visitors each year exploring its sacred corridors.
3. Fasil Ghebbi in Gondar, Ethiopia
Emperor Fasilides oversaw the building of the magnificent fortified city in 1636, after he defied convention and established Gondar as the new capital. Previously, Ethiopian monarchs would travel throughout the nation, surviving on the food provided by people and sleeping in tents. Fasil Ghebbi has been a symbol of transformation in Ethiopia since its beginnings.
The castle complex, which was built on top of a high plateau, included not only residential quarters for the royal family, but also gardens, temples, libraries, and even swimming pools. After Fasilides, each succeeding king proceeded to expand the Medieval-style stronghold, but it was Fasilides' grandson, Emperor Iyasu I the Great, who filled the palace with ivory statues and gem-encrusted ceilings, which are often mentioned in historical records.
Throughout the ages, earthquakes and foreign army assaults wreaked havoc on the Fasil Ghebbi. For many years, the castle complex suffered from damage caused by British air attacks during World War II, as well as wars with Somalia and Sudan. It was eventually included to the UNESCO Heritage List in 1979 and restored to the popular tourist destination it is today.
4. Chenonceaux, France's Château de Chenonceau
Château de Chenonceau seems to be gracefully floating above the reflecting Cher River, surrounded by groomed formal gardens. The original building dates from the 11th century, but Diane de Poitiers, Henry II's mistress, commissioned Philibert de l'Orme to construct the castle's signature feature, the arched bridge.
After the death of the king in 1559, Catherine de' Medici, a strong lady, made Chenonceau her favourite home. Catherine's magnificent gallery and excellent hosting abilities never failed to wow visitors inside the castle gates on any given night. It's even said that the first-ever fireworks show was performed on the grounds to commemorate her son's accession to the throne, Francis II.
During World War II, however, the château was severely damaged when German forces occupied it and Allies bombed its church. The Menier family commissioned architect Bernard Voisin to restore the grounds and building to its former glory in 1951.
A date palm plantation lies behind Nakhal Fort in Nakhal, Oman, some 120 kilometers west of Muscat. Nakhal Fort has a history that goes back to the pre-Islamic era, and it was reconstructed by Omani architects in the 17th century.
At first sight, the majestic castle perched above Oman's Batinah Plain seems to have an uneven form. The Nakhal Fort's original construction, which predates the Islamic period, was constructed around a huge rock near Mount Nakhal's foot, giving it an uneven appearance.
The fort expanded to incorporate its own mosque, living areas, and reception rooms as a means to defend neighbouring trade routes from looters and assaults. The odder features, such as concealed nooks where troops would pour hot date juice on attackers, should not be ignored.
On most days, the fort serves as a museum with historic relics, but if you come on a Friday, you'll be greeted by friendly goats at the fort's weekly market.
5. The Red Fort is a fortification in Delhi, India
After relocating the empire's headquarters from Agra to the freshly constructed city of Delhi, Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan laid the groundwork for the Red Fort, or Lal Qila. The complex network of inlaid-paneled hallways and rooms behind the modest red sandstone façade mixed conventional Mughal architecture with aspects of Persian, Timurid, and Hindu design.
Until the Indian Rebellion of 1857, when numerous priceless jewels stored inside its walls were stolen and Bahadur Shah II was driven out of power, the Red Fort remained the former capital of the Mughal empire. It would, however, play a significant part in India's independence from British control, as it was the site where the first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, would give his "Tryst with Destiny'' address.
Every year on India's Independence Day, the incumbent Prime Minister speaks from the Red Fort's ramparts, emphasising the fort's national significance.